The ENPULSION NANO R³ is an FEEP propulsion system based on the flight-proven ENPULSION NANO with indium propellant and no moving parts. Incorporation of lessons learned from a large number of acceptance test campaigns and in-orbit performance verifications led into an updated electronics design, thermostructural concept, and software functionality. The resulting product – the ENPULSION NANO R³ – features increased reliability, radiation tolerance, and environmental resilience.

All EEE components of the ENPULSION NANO R³ are procured in lot-controlled batches. Selected sets of these batches are subjected to radiation testing, so that each thruster delivered to a customer can be traced back to a fully representative qualification model using components from the same batch. EEE components were selected and integrated to be more tolerant to TID and SEE.

The ENPULSION NANO R³ is an updated version of the space proven ENPULSION NANO. It is directly building on its heritage, leveraging the proven design and component selection

The thruster is assembled into a protective casing that shields the electronics from the hazardous space radiation environment, facilitates handling during integration, and allows side mounting.

Thrust can be controlled through the electrode voltages, providing excellent controllability over the full thrust range and a low thrust noise. Due to the efficient ionization process, the ENPULSION NANO R³ can provide a higher specific impulse than any other ion propulsion system currently on the market.

The ENPULSION Nano R³ contains no moving parts and the indium propellant is in its solid state at room temperature. This significantly simplifies handling, integration and launch procedures.

While the required power to operate the ENPULSION NANO R³ starts at around 8 W, at higher power levels one can choose between high thrust and high specific impulse operation. The ENPULSION NANO R³ can operate at an Isp range of 2,000 to 6,000 s.

At any given thrust point, higher Isp operation will increase the total impulse, while also increas ing the power demand. The thruster can be operated along the full dynamic range throughout the mission. This means that high Isp and low Isp manoeuvres can be included in a mission planning as well as high thrust orbit manoeuvres and low thrust precision control manoeuvres.

Nano IR³ and Nano R³ are to have their first flights in late 2022.

Key features

  • EEE lot control
  • Updated version of the space proven enpulsion nano
  • Protective casing
  • Versatile performance
  • Safe and inert system

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Last updated: 2022-12-20





dynamic thrust range
10 to 350 µN
lead time
30 weeks after receipt of deposit
nominal thrust
350 µN
specific impulse
2000 to 6000 s
propellant mass
220 g
total impulse
> 5000 N s
power at nominal thrust
40 W incl. neutralizer
98.0 mm
99.0 mm
95.3 mm
dry mass
< 1200 g
wet mass
< 1420 g
power consumption
8 to 40 W
hot standby power
3.5 W
temperature envelope
-40 to 95 C
operating temperature
-20 to 40 C
12 V
28 V

1. Other voltages available on request.


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