The Tensor Tech RS100 – Reaction Sphere is an attitude actuator based on a variable-speed, single-gimbal control moment gyro (CMG), driven by 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) spherical motor technology.

The system is designed to provide advanced satellites with an accurate attitude actuation system that features an improved slew rate with standard consumption requirements.

The RS100 has been designed to for user-friendly integration and operations, featuring dedicated customer support software for calibration, setting, and simulations on PC. It has a PC104 connector and is controlled by the onboard computer (OBC) using I2C or UART with attitude command.

CMGs often feature a complicated control methodology and mechanical structure that can add cost and complexity to satellite integration. However, compared to reaction wheels with the same angular momentum storage capability, they usually produce a larger output torque, though with more volume and weight.

The RS100 has been designed to address these issues, reducing the volume and weight of a CMG by simplifying its mechanical structure and providing more intuitive, simplified system dynamics for easier integration and operation.

The system enables control of the orientation of a CubeSat in a similar manner to 3 traditional single-axis reaction wheels and 3 magnetorquers, though with lower weight, size, and power consumption.

The RS100 has an embedded speed control mode and torque control mode. Using the speed mode, customers can develop ADCS algorithms with precise control of the inner rotor speed and tilting angle of the CMG.

Using the torque mode, customers can treat the system as a torque output unit in which the RS100 propagates control and steering laws internally, and assuming the slew rate of the satellite is <1 deg/s.

Key features

  • Designed to produce a large output torque, with the same angular momentum storage capability and low volume and weight requirements, compared to traditional reaction wheels
  • Embedded speed and torque control modes
  • Manufactured with mu-metal, for high-performance magnetic shielding
  • Simplified system dynamics enable effective CMG use without complex integration requirements


The system is provided in 3 configurations:

  • The RS100 as standard,
  • The RS200 - featuring two RS100s connected to provide torque in 2 axes, and
  • The RS400 – featuring four RS100s connected in a "pyramid cluser" format to provide gyroscopic torque in 3 axes.

The system is provided with a PC104 connector as standard and the mounting holes, pins, and electrical connectors may be customized.

An optional GNSS system and 3-axis magnetorquers are available.

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Last updated: 2021-10-21

RS100 - Reaction Sphere



< 250 g
supply voltage
3.3 V
5 V
power consumption
< 1 W
maximum torque
1 mN m (adjustable)
maximum momentum storage
< 10 mN m s
data interface
lead time
4 wk
operating temperature
-20 to 60 C


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